De GDDS Quick Guide is voor instituten en instellingen bedoeld die statistieken over Suriname verzamelen. Deze uitgave is alleen Engelstalig beschikbaar.

 



 

 

 

 

Table of Contents

I.Introduction.. - 3 -

II.Background.. - 3 -

III.Objectives of the GDDS. - 3 -

IV.Main Elements of the GDDS. - 3 -

V.The GDDS and Data Quality. - 3 -

VI.Key Operational Features of the GDDS. - 3 -

VII.Dimensions of the General Data Dissemination System- 3 -

1.The Data Dimension.. - 3 -

2.Quality Dimension of the Disseminated Data. - 3 -

3.Integrity Dimension.. - 3 -

4.Dimension of Access by the Public. - 3 -

VIII.Metadata and the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board.. - 3 -



I.Introduction

 

The purpose of this Quick Guide
is to explain the nature and objectives of the General Data
Dissemination System (GDDS), to describe its operation, and to provide
practical guidance to agencies that compile official statistics in Suriname. The
GDDS provides a basic framework for a broader national statistical development
strategy, covering a set of statistics recognized to be essential for
policymaking and analysis in an environment that requires relevant,
comprehensive, and accurate statistics. The GDDS addresses the full range of
issues critical for compiling and disseminating data and making strategic plans
for improvement to align national procedures with best practices.

 

For participating member
countries, the GDDS has provided a management tool and a framework to foster
sound statistical methodology, professional data compilation, and data
dissemination. The purpose of the GDDS is to assist member countries to develop
their statistical systems. The GDDS further allows the data-producing agencies
to take control of their statistical development programs in a harmonized
structured manner and to coordinate effectively among producing agencies,
users, and the international community.

 

Participating countries must
update and revise their metadata to describe how their data compilation and
dissemination activities are keeping pace with the necessary changes in best
statistical practices.

It is important that those
agencies that compile official statistics for Suriname consult the GDDS section
of the IMF’s Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) on the Internet at:
http://dsbb.imf.org/gddsindex.htm.

II.Background

 

In the aftermath of the
international financial crisis of the 1990s, there was recognition that the
ready availability to the public of comprehensive and timely economic and
financial data could facilitate the formulation and implementation of sound
macroeconomic policies and investment decisions. These, in turn, could reduce
the frequency and moderate the severity of future episodes of unusual
turbulence in financial markets. In January 1998, a document entitled The
General Data Dissemination System
, referred to asthe “GDDS
Document,” was issued by the IMF’s Statistics Department. It continues to be
the primary reference source on what the GDDSis and how it should be
implemented. This documentis periodically updated to reflect changes in
theGDDS.

 

In May 2000, the IMF launched a GDDS site
(http://dsbb.imf.org) on the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) that
informs the public of each GDDS participating member country, its current
statistical practices, and its plans for development of the statistical system
within the GDDS framework.

 

The pace of change in the needs of users of
statistics in recent years, coupled with uncertainties about the direction,
manner, and rate at which these needs will evolve, poses special challenges for
the development of statistical systems, especially in situations in which tight
resource constraints prevail. Existing international cooperative arrangements,
while effective, often focus on specific statistical areas (i.e. national
accounts and balance of payments) rather than on the overall development of
statistical systems.

III.Objectives
of the GDDS

 

As a structured process, the
GDDS aims to address statistical needs. The increasing integration of economic
and financial activity across countries has intensified demand for a wide range
of economic and other data to underpin the task of macroeconomic management,
which itself has become far more complex over time.

 

Accordingly, the GDDS addresses
three key areas—the quality of data; development plans for statistical systems;
and the dissemination of data. Together, these three priority areas constitute
a solid basis on which to formulate long-run policies for statistical
development.

 

Quality is used in the GDDS in two different settings: as a
primary goal of the system (referred to as data quality) and as a
specific dimension of the system. The primary objective of the system relates
to the first meaning, which is as an attribute of statistical data. The primary
goal of the GDDS is to ensure data quality in statistical systems, developed
and maintained in ways that permit statistics to be compiled and disseminated
in accordance with principles and practices that ensure high standards of excellence.
Thus, the system is grounded on the application of sound methodological
principles, the adoption of rigorous compilation practices, and the use of
procedures that ensure professionalism and objectivity as well as adequate
dissemination of statistics. The GDDS is not intended to address cases where
timeliness is of the essence—rather; it focuses on building the capacity to
disseminate quality statistics, which is an appropriate long-run goal for all
statistical systems. Moreover, the attainment of this goal should ensure that,
in the future, data that must be used in cases where timeliness is the main
priority will be far more useful than would otherwise be the case. It is in
this broad context of data quality that the Statistics Department of the IMF has
developed the DQAF. Information on the DQAF can be found on the Data Quality
Reference Site:
http://dsbb.imf.org.

 

Development plans in the GDDS focus on viewing the statistical system
in its entirety. In this way, the task of establishing priorities is
simplified, and resource allocation becomes more efficient. The development
plans in the GDDS cover (i) a diagnosis of the current situation and the
formulation of a strategic vision of future directions; (ii) the elaboration of
a detailed action plan that identifies all the resources that are required to
achieve the desired objectives; and (iii) the tracking of progress under these
plans.

 

Dissemination of data is the ultimate objective of any statistical system.
Accordingly, the GDDS attaches special importance to the procedures used to
disseminate data. A major area of emphasis is the choice of appropriate and
impartial methods of dissemination.

IV.Main
Elements of the GDDS

 

Participation in the GDDS by
IMF member countries is voluntary. It requires that a country undertake
three actions relative to the system, and participation depends on completion
of these actions. These actions are:

 

1.
Commitment to using the GDDS as
a framework for the development of national systems for the compilation and
dissemination of economic, financial, and socio-demographic data;

2.

Designation of a country
coordinator to work with IMF staff; and

3.
Preparation of metadata,to be disseminated by the IMF
on the DSBB, on

·Current statistical compilation and dissemination
practices and

·Plans for short- and medium-term improvements in
each of the four dimensions of the system.

V.The GDDS
and Data Quality

 

The principal goal of the GDDS
is to improve data quality. In the GDDS, the term “quality” appears in two
separate contexts. The first is as an attribute of the data, and in that case
the term that is used is “data quality.” The second is as a dimension of the
system itself, and in this context it is referred to as “quality.” When viewed
as an attribute of data, quality can have several meanings. For instance,
quality might be viewed as a function of how effectively the data measure the
stocks, flows, or other concepts in question. In this concept of quality,
accuracy of measurement assumes great importance, and it may be possible in
some cases to obtain direct estimates of the accuracy of data, such as measures
of coverage for census data or sampling error for survey data. Other aspects of
data quality might center on the comparability of data series over time or
across sectors, and in some cases it may be possible to develop quantitative
measures of quality.

 

When viewed as a dimension of
the GDDS, quality has a single and unambiguous meaning. This second meaning of
quality concerns the supporting information that is made available to users
regarding the data and the practices in place for their production and
dissemination. In this setting, users will find it helpful to have access to
documentation on methodology, information regarding quality assurance
practices, dissemination policies, and plans for improvement. Specifically, the
GDDS identifies as an objective the dissemination of documentation on the
sources and methods used in preparing statistics and on component detail,
statistical frameworks, and comparisons and reconciliations that support
statistical cross-checks. Metadata prepared under the system serve as a vehicle
to track improvements in quality.

VI.Key
Operational Features of the GDDS

 

A country’s participation in the
GDDS, as already noted, is voluntary. Member countries that choose to
participate in the system may do so at any time and should initiate the process
by indicating their intention in a communication to the Director of the
Statistics Department of the IMF. Member countries that are considering
participation are encouraged to seek information and guidance from IMF staff. Because
the structures of statistical systems differ considerably, it would not be
appropriate to provide rigid guidelines that all countries should follow
regarding the methods and modalities relating to all aspects of participation.
As a general
rule, however, the following
considerations deserve
attention.

 

Commitment
to use the GDDS as a framework for statistical development.
This continuing process begins at the commencement
of participation.Participating
countries will find it helpful to focuson the range of activities that will be required toensure that the process runs
smoothly. To facilitatethis
process, the GDDS calls for the developmentof plans for improvements in data compilationand dissemination practices and
for the posting ofmetadata
describing these plans on the DSBB.

 

Designation
of a country coordinator.
The
coordinator serves as a liaison between the member country and the IMF staff on
all aspects of participation in, and implementation of, the GDDS.

 

Preparation
of metadata on current practices.
The
descriptions of current practices and planswould correspond to each of the objectives for thedata, quality, access, and
integrity dimensions. Anumber
of agencies and units will almost certainlyneed to be involved in this important initial step ofparticipation in the GDDS. It is
therefore requestedthat
a standard format, described in Chapter 4, beused in the preparation of metadata that allowstheir electronic communication
to the IMF.

 

Development
of short- and medium-term plans for the development of the statistical
system.
In considering participation in the GDDS, a member
country should concern itself with the processesthrough
which development plans will be formulated.Ideally, the
development of plans shouldbegin with a strategic vision of the
evolution ofa country’s statistical system over the longer run.

This vision can form the basis for the elaborationof the
medium-term plans. Once formulated, themedium-term plans can be
used as the basis forpreparing the short-term plans.

The metadata to be
provided for posting on the DSBB should describe these short- and medium- term
plans. Specifically, the metadata should indicate (i) plans for improvement
that deal with identified shortcomings in data compilation and dissemination
practices; (ii) recent improvements that have been implemented; or (iii) a
country’s statement that no improvements are deemed necessary.

 

Interagency
coordination.
Coordination among the
concerned agencies and units is a critical element in all aspects of GDDS
participation, and a participating country will need to establish effective
mechanisms to ensure coordination among those involved in statistical
activities. Such coordination is of critical importance for formulating a
strategic vision of the country’s statistical system, identifying priority
areas of action, and ensuring the maximum degree of consistency among data
sets.

 

In view of the importance of
the role played by the country coordinator, careful consideration should be
given to the selection of the coordinator. While the considerations that will
be appropriate in the selection of the coordinator will vary from country to
country, it is essential that the coordinator have sufficient time to perform
the role effectively, especially in the early stages of the process when a
country is familiarizing itself with the GDDS.

 

The coordinator should be an
official of an agency that is well-placed to undertake this role. While it is
convenient to associate the role of coordinator with an individual, it is
essential to recognize that the objective of naming a coordinator is to ensure
that the required coordination functions are performed effectively. The
emphasis on the role of the coordinator derives from the fact that
participation in the GDDS involves a long-term commitment to achieving
improvements in data quality, including data dissemination practices. Progress
in these areas requires effective coordination among statistical agencies
within the country and with the IMF. This coordinated approach also extends to
relations with other multilateral and bilateral providers of technical
assistance in statistics. A principal role of the GDDS coordinator is to act as
the main communicator with IMF staff on all issues relating to participation
and implementation of the GDDS. Among the key tasks to be performed during this
phase are (i) ensuring that officials of all concerned agencies are fully
familiar with requirements for the preparation of metadata and other aspects of
participation; (ii) informing the IMF staff that the country has reached the
point at which it can work intensively on preparation of metadata; (iii)
communicating with IMF staff on technical issues; (iv) facilitating the work
with IMF staff on preparing metadata; and (v) assisting in the finalization of
metadata by, among other things, facilitating communication with and among
specialists in the data-producing agencies.

 

Once the metadata have been
finalized and posted on the DSBB, the coordinator is responsible for notifying
IMF staff whenever changes take place so that appropriate updates can be
posted. These notifications should include, in particular, information on
progress in implementing plans for improvement. The coordinator should also
ensure that a thorough review of all metadata and certification of metadata
accuracy is undertaken at least once a year.

VII.Dimensions
of the General Data Dissemination System

1.The
Data Dimension

 

A hierarchical structure is
used in elaborating the data dimension of the GDDS. In the first stage, a
distinction is made between the four macroeconomic sectors and the socio-demographic
data. Next, the economic and financial data are classified to one of the four
macroeconomic sectors (real, fiscal, financial, and external), and the socio-demographic
data are broken down into four data categories (population, health, education,
and poverty), with basic components identified for each category and encouraged
extensions specified for some.

 

The specifications for the data
dimension of the GDDS are neither requirements nor prescriptions that must be
observed to participate in the system. Rather, they are good-practice
objectives to be approached over time. A participating country should indicate
in the metadata its short- and medium-term plans with respect to implementing
these good-practice objectives.

Coverage

 

In its coverage of data sets,
the GDDS focuses on the data that are considered most important in evaluating
performance and policy in four macroeconomic sectors—real, fiscal, financial,
and external— as well as complementary socio-demographic data that shed light
on economic development and structural change. The GDDS addresses the
development and dissemination of a full range of data by (i) presenting
objectives for the development and dissemination of comprehensive frameworks in
each of the four macroeconomic sectors and (ii) recommending the development
and dissemination of indicators for these four sectors and of basic components
in the area of socio-demographic data, with periodicity and timeliness
appropriate to the circumstances of each participating country.

 

Periodicity

 

Periodicity refers to the
frequency of compilation of the data. The periodicity recommended by the GDDS
for a particular data set is determined by several factors, including the needs
of analysis and the ease of observation or compilation. Although these factors
are not the same for specific data sets across countries, in practice there is
rather widespread agreement about good practice regarding the highest frequency
of compilation for the comprehensive frameworks and many of the indicators in
the GDDS.

 

Timeliness

Timeliness refers to the lapse
of time between the end of a reference period (or a reference date) and
dissemination of the data. It reflects many factors, including some that are
related to institutional arrangements, such as the preparation of accompanying
commentary and printing.

Specifications for Comprehensive Frameworks

 

Real sector—national accounts

 

The comprehensive framework for
the real sector comprises the core framework of National Accounts. The objective is the compilation and
dissemination of data that cover the widest possible scope of economic
activity. Current practices as well as plans for expanding coverage should be
presented in the metadata. For example, if certain areas of production (for
example, military output, mineral production) are not included in existing
estimates, this practice should be indicated and plans to improve coverage
should be developed and disseminated. If informal sector production is
significant, the present estimation techniques should be described and any
plans for improving these techniques noted.

 

The use of internationally
agreed guidelines for the development of national accounts is recommended. The
two most commonly used international guidelines for national accounts are the System
of National Accounts 1993
(1993 SNA) and the European
System of Accounts 1995 (ESA 1995).For the development of
quarterly national accounts, countries should also use the IMF’s Quarterly
National Accounts Manual.
It is recognized that each country must design its
own path for national accounts development, based on its economic and
institutional structure, analytical and policy needs, and human and financial
resources.

 

Complete sets of national
accounts, such as those described in the 1993 SNA, are currently compiled by only a few countries. The complete
set of accounts includes not only major aggregates for the total economy (GDP,
Gross National Income, Gross Disposable Income, Saving, and Net Lending/Net Borrowing)
but also full transaction accounts for institutional sectors and balance sheets
for the total economy and institutional sectors. For many countries, such
complete accounts exceed current analytical and policy requirements and/or
cannot be compiled with available resources.

 

The GDDS, therefore, does not
recommend that countries develop full sets of national accounts; it recommends,
rather, that countries determine their specific medium-term needs for national
accounts and develop realistic plans for implementing those parts of the
complete set of accounts that are appropriate.

 

For many countries at the
early stages of national accounts development, priority might be assigned in
the medium term to developing major aggregates for the total economy and
improving their quality. Longer-term objectives might include the development
of accounts for those sectors that are particularly important. Countries in
more advanced stages of national accounts development and with more complex
data requirements might place the medium-term priority on the development of
sectoral accounts and balance sheets.
The
GDDS recommends that annual data on the

core framework of national accounts be compiled anddisseminated
with a timeliness of 10 to 14 months.

 

Fiscal sector—central
government operations

 

The comprehensive
framework for the fiscal sector comprises a core framework for Central Government Operations and an encouraged
extension relating to General Government or Public Sector Operations.

 

The GDDS focus for the
core framework of central government operations is on the production and
dissemination of comprehensive data on transactions and on debt, emphasizing
(i) coverage of all central government units; (ii) use of an appropriate
analytical framework; and (iii) development of a full range of detailed
classifications.

 

Separate comprehensive
framework tables should be prepared for central government transactions and for
central government debt. All units of central government should be included.
These units consist of (i) all ministries, agencies, and other units whose
transactions are covered by the central government budget; (ii) all units with
their own resources or direct sources of financing (extra-budgetary units)
whose magnitude is significant relative to the size of the budget; and (iii)
social security funds operating at the national level.

 

The identification of
central government units may be based on definitions of the government sector
provided in the 1993 SNA, A Manual on Government Finance Statistics (GFSM 1986), or the Government Finance Statistics Manual 2001 (GFSM 2001).
The general government
sector may be sub-sectored by treating social security funds as a separate
subsector or by consolidating social security funds at the level of government
at which they operate. For fiscal analysis, the latter sub-sectoring is usually
preferred, particularly where social security funds have surpluses or are in
deficit. The metadata for the comprehensive frameworks should describe the
coverage of the widest measures currently disseminated and plans to expand this
coverage if necessary.

 

The GDDS recommends the
use of an appropriate analytical framework to define and present central
government transactions databut does not prescribea
particular framework. Any fully identified national
definitions
of aggregates of revenue and expenditure (expense) and balancing items, such as
current account and overall deficit, or operating surplus and net
lending/borrowing, may be used. The framework and definitions provided in
either the GFSM 1986or
the GFSM 2001are
recommended.

 

If a different analytical
framework is used, it would be useful to indicate in the metadata how major
aggregates and balancing items differ from those presented in those manuals.
Further, plans for improving the analytical framework may be based on the recommendations
of those manuals. These plans should be described in the metadata.

 

The data disseminated should
include detailed classifications of the major aggregates in the analytical
framework. Specifically recommended are breakdowns of (i) tax and nontax
revenue; (ii) expenditure by function (i.e., by purpose); (iii) expenditure by
economic type, with a separate identification of the major components of
current and capital expenditure; and (iv) financing. Countries implementing the
GFSM 2001 should provide breakdowns of revenue, expense, net acquisition
of nonfinancial assets, net acquisition of financial assets, and net incurrence
of liabilities.

 

Financing data should, wherever
possible, distinguish domestic from external financing on a residency basis—domestic
financing data should distinguish between financing from the banking system and
from other sources. Data on financing should be supplemented, as relevant, with
breakdowns by financial instrument and/or by currency of denomination.

 

Classification by residency is
analytically useful and promotes consistency of fiscal and balance of payments
data. In countries where government financing operations include the issuing of
securities, a residency breakdown may be difficult to compile. In these cases, the
primary breakdown of financing may be by currency of denomination or type of
instrument, but efforts should still be made to develop a residency breakdown.
The metadata should describe current classifications that are produced and
disseminated and plans to improve these classifications.

 

Data for central government
debt
should be comprehensive and should include the liabilities of all
institutional units that are part of central government.

 

All liabilities in the form of
securities, loans, and deposits should be included. Debt of other units that is
guaranteed by the central government should also be compiled and disseminated
when the amounts involved are significant. The GDDS recommends that countries
provide a breakdown of debt by foreign and domestic components according to
residence. Other breakdowns recommended by the GDDS are identification of debt
by type of holder or type of instrument.

 

Classification and definition
of debt according to the guidelines of the GFSM1986 and GFSM 2001,
External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users
5 (for external debt), or
regional guidelinesare encouraged; the use of such guidelines or plans
to use them should be noted in the metadata.

 

The GDDS recommends
dissemination of annual data on central government operations and general
government or public sector operations, with a timeliness of six to nine
months.

 

Financial sector—depository
corporations survey

 

The comprehensive framework for
the financial sector is the core framework relating to the Depository
Corporations Survey
. The objective for this core framework is the
compilation and dissemination of comprehensive data emphasizing (i) coverage of
all depository corporations (banking and other deposit-taking institutions); (ii)
use of an appropriate analytical framework; and (iii) development of
classifications of external assets and liabilities, domestic credit by sector,
and components of money (liquidity) and nonmonetary liabilities.

 

The appropriate coverage for
the GDDS is that group of financial institutions whose liabilities include the
money measure(s) most frequently used for monetary analysis. Depository
corporations are defined in the 1993 SNA and in the Monetary and Financial
Statistics Manual (MFSM)
to include all financial institutions that incur
liabilities in the form of deposits and/or close substitutes for deposits where
these deposits or deposit substitutes are included in national measures of
broad money. The coverage is built around not only a group of institutions but
also a country-specific measure of money. This coverage comprises the Central
Bank of Suriname and all other depository corporations.

 

The broad money measure
normally includes transferable deposits; time, saving, and fixed-term deposits;
participations in money market mutual funds; and short-term securities, such as
negotiable certificates of deposit, that have characteristics similar to
deposits.

 

The GDDS recommends that the
statistical framework contained in the MFSM be used for the depository
corporations survey. Stock data (outstanding assets and liabilities) should be
disseminated, but transaction data may also be disseminated. The analytical
framework should distinguish between external and domestic positions on the
basis of the residency criteria as defined in the 1993 SNA and BPM5.

 

Gross data on claims on and
liabilities to nonresidents should be disseminated. Domestic credit should be
classified according to the debtor sector and, ideally, should separately
identify claims on government (central, state, and local, as relevant), claims
on public nonfinancial corporations, and claims on the private sector. The
disseminated data on money measures should include breakdowns by type of
monetary instrument, and data on nonmonetary liabilities (for example,
long-term securities) should also be disseminated.

 

The depository corporations
survey should be compiled on a monthly basis because this frequency reflects
current good practice across a broad range of countries, and should be
disseminated within two or three months of the end of the reference month.

 

External sector—balance of
payments

 

The comprehensive framework for
the external sector comprises a core framework relating to balance of
payments
and an encouraged extension for the international investment
position
(IIP). The objective of the core framework is the compilation and
dissemination of comprehensive data on the main aggregates and balancing items
of the balance of payments, including, for example, imports and exports of
goods and services, trade balance, income and transfers, current account
balance, reserves and other financial transactions, and overall balance, with
detailed components as relevant. Compilation of data according to the BPM5 is
recommended.

 

The broad objective for
compilation and dissemination of balance of payments data is to produce all the
standard components of the BPM5 that are relevant to a country’s
circumstances. Current, capital, and financial transactions should be
distinguished. Components recommended for dissemination within the current
account include (i) imports and exports of goods and services; (ii) income
transactions—that is, income receipts and payments, both with respect to
compensation of employees and investment income, with the latter including
income from direct investment, portfolio investment, and other investment; and
(iii) receipts and payments with respect to current transfers.

 

The capital account should
include capital transfers, as relevant, and the financial account should
separately identify transactions with respect to direct investment, portfolio
investment, financial derivatives, other investment, and reserves. Additional
breakdowns of debt securities and loans, within portfolio investment and other
investment, respectively, by currency of issue and by original maturity
(short-term versus medium- and long-term using classifications by instrument),
would be highly desirable for an overall view of external debt.

 

The metadata for the balance of
payments should describe present data compilation and dissemination practices
and plans to implement the analytical framework and classifications of the BPM5.

In countries where the BPM5 is not used, the metadata should describe
the present methodology and plans to move toward conformity with the BPM5.

Specifications for Data Categories and Indicators

 

Real sector

 

National accounts aggregates

 

The data category
corresponding to the comprehensive statistical framework for the real sector is
national accounts aggregates. The core indicators for national accounts
aggregates are GDP at nominal and real (price-adjusted) levels. The GDDS also
encourages the production and dissemination of indicators on gross national
income, capital formation, and saving. The system recommends that indicators
for national accounts aggregates be produced on an annual basis and
disseminated within six to nine months of the end of the calendar or fiscal
year, as relevant. The compilation and dissemination of quarterly national
accounts aggregates are encouraged.

The GDDS does not recommend
the specific components of the national accounts that should be compiled and
disseminated but encourages breakdowns of GDP by major expenditure category, by
productive sector (industry), or both. The breakdowns into component items
should be those relevant for the country concerned.

 

Classification of national
accounts aggregates according to the 1993 SNA (or a regional
counterpart) is encouraged. The compilation of quarterly GDP estimates is also
encouraged. However, if a country
with
resource constraints and significant weaknesses
in its annual national accounts
has not yet improved
the quality (scope, coverage, and methodology) ofits annual
national accounts, it would not be advisable

for it to develop quarterly estimates until it hasimplemented a
plan for improving its annual national

accounts. In this case, priority should be given todeveloping a
program for updating the base or benchmark

year of national accounts and implementing themost current
international standards.

 

Production index/indices

 

The data category that is
intended to track productive activity on a more frequent basis is a production
index or, if more appropriate, several production indices. The index
(and any components of it) or selection of indices that is relevant will depend
on a country’s economic structure—industrial production in some countries,
commodity production (for example, petroleum) in other countries, or
agricultural production in still others.

 

The index or selection of
indices that is chosen should be the one used within the country as a useful
indicator. For instance, it would not be advisable for a mainly agricultural
country with resource limitations and shortcomings in its national accounts to
invest its scarce resources in developing a manufacturing production index
until it improved the quality of its agricultural indicators and, hence, the quality
of its national accounts.

 

The GDDS does not recommend the
dissemination of retail or wholesale sales indices as substitutes for
production indices because sales indices may not track GDP developments, owing
to the impact of inventory buildups or drawdown. However, if sales indicators
are considered important for analysis, the metadata for the production
index/indices may note this.

 

The GDDS recommends a monthly
measure for the manufacturing or industrial index. The periodicity of other
production indices is specified as “as relevant” to Suriname’s structure and
production cycles. For instance, in some countries, such as those where
seasonal crop production is important, production may not be well represented
by a monthly index.

 

The recommended timeliness of
dissemination is 6 to 12 weeks from the end of the reference period for all
indices.

 

Consumer price index

 

The CPI index, sometimes also
referred to as a retail price index, indicates the part of the variation over
time in a household expenditure aggregate that can be attributed to price
movements. The expenditure aggregate comprises expenditures on goods and
services that households acquire, pay for, or use for purposes of consumption.
The CPI is typically measured by a Laspeyres index of the prices of a fixed set
of goods and services items, often referred to as a “fixed basket,” whose
weights are the item shares in the expenditure aggregate from a given,
generally annual, historical period.

 

Countries may prepare several
indices, differing, for example, with respect to geographic coverage, reference
population, and item coverage. For the GDDS, the metadata should describe the
characteristics of the index most widely used in the country but may also note
other existing CPIs.

 

The GDDS does not recommend
the dissemination of any component, or sub-index, detail. However, the major
items of the United Nations Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose
(COICOP), which is also recommended in the 1993 SNA, provide a guide to
the types of consumption expendi
ture
aggregates that conform with international

guidelines.

 

Producer price index

 

The PPI measures that part of
the variation over time in an enterprise output aggregate that can be
attributed to the price movements of the goods and services produced. The
greater the extent to which the output aggregate includes all production in the
economy valued at the prices received by producers, the more closely the PPI
approximates the coverage and valuation of an economy’s output price index.

 

A wholesale price index (WPI)
is generally understood to be that part of the variation over time in the value
of transactions through inter-enterprise or wholesale markets that can be
attributed to the price movements of the goods and services bought or sold. The
greater the extent to which transactions through wholesale markets constitute
all consumption by producers at purchasers’ prices of noncapital goods and
services in an economy, the more closely a WPI can be said to approximate the
coverage and valuation of a price index for intermediate consumption.

 

Taking into account resource
constraints, countries are encouraged to compile PPIs to improve the quality of
their national accounts estimates. However, the PPI is commonly restricted to
manufacturing industries.

For predominantly agricultural
economies, this index should not have priority.

 

Labor market

 

The GDDS recommends the
compilation and dissemination of employment, unemployment, and wages/earnings
indicators on an “as relevant” basis. Some labor market data may be most
relevant for industrial countries. Nevertheless, some labor market measures are
considered important for almost all countries.

 

The data on the labor
market should be disseminated on an annual basis and within six to nine months
of the end of the year. These goals for periodicity and timeliness are
recommended after consultation with the Bureau of Statistics of the
International Labor Office (ILO). When the three components are based on
different basic data, they may well be compiled and therefore disseminated with
differing periodicity and timeliness. The components should be described
separately in the metadata.

 

Employment

 

Some countries compile several
measures of employment, which may be based on sample surveys of households or
individuals, on establishment surveys, or on social insurance records. For the
GDDS, the measure identified should be that most widely used in Suriname.

 

The GDDS recommends employment
data on an “as relevant” basis. This approach is likely to be of use where, in
view of the nature of the economy, there is less than complete coverage of the
population by the underlying surveys or administrative records (for example,
the basic data are limited to the nonagricultural population). The MDG indicators
include the share of women in wage employment in the non-agriculture sector;
therefore, the GDDS recommends the collection of employment data by gender.

 

Unemployment

 

Some countries prepare several
measures of unemployment—for example, based on sample surveys of households or
individuals, social insurance records, or employment office statistics. For the
GDDS, the measure identified should be that most widely used in the country. In
addition, either the number of unemployed or the unemployed as a percentage of
the labor force may be identified. The GDDS recommends the compilation and
dissemination of unemployment data on an “as relevant” basis. In many
countries, the labor market is characterized less by a dichotomy of employment/
unemployment than by a continuum, whereby at one extreme people are fully
employed while at the other extreme they are not employed at all. Much of the
economically active population falls between these extremes. They may depend,
for example, on subsistence agriculture, which may be highly seasonal, or on
occasional sales of food or other home-produced goods.

 

Wages/earnings

 

In the context of labor
statistics, wage data comprise direct wages and salaries for time worked or
work done. By contrast, earnings data (in cash and in kind) are broader,
covering in addition remuneration for time not worked, bonuses, gratuities, and
housing and family allowances paid by the employer to the employee. The series
identified for the GDDS may be average earnings or time rates of wages
(preferably accompanied by consistent data on hours worked). The scope of the
series could differ from country to country, and the one identified should be
the series most widely used within the country.

 

The GDDS recommends the
compilation and dissemination of wages/earnings data on an “as relevant” basis.
This will be the case where the survey or the administrative records cover less
than the full labor force (for example, covering only the nonagricultural
population or wage earners in manufacturing).

 

Fiscal sector

 

Central government aggregates

 

For the fiscal sector, the data
category corresponding to the comprehensive framework is central government
aggregates
. The data should be compiled on a quarterly basis and
disseminated within one quarter of the end of the reference quarter. The data
should cover at least the budgetary accounts. Ideally, the data should also
include as wide a range of central government units as feasible—that is, social
security and extra-budgetary units and accounts—to track adequately the
movements in the whole of central government.

 

The GDDS therefore recommends
that participating countries establish full coverage of budgetary accounts as a
short-term goal. Extensions of coverage to other important units of the central
government should be a medium- to long-term goal, and plans for such extensions
should be indicated in the metadata.

 

Following GFSM 1986, the
GDDS recommends as indicators revenue, expenditure, a balance, and
financing with breakdowns
. Countries following the recommendations of the GFSM
2001
should use revenue, expense, net acquisition of nonfinancial assets,
and financing with breakdowns. The balance (surplus/deficit or net
lending/borrowing) that is identified for the purposes of the GDDS should be
the concept in use in the country. The determinants of the balance will
normally include revenues and expenditures and exclude all transactions that
increase or decrease central government liabilities.

 

Aggregate financing data should
be disseminated, and the classification with respect to domestic and foreign
components may parallel that described under the comprehensive framework for
central government operations; that is, wherever possible, domestic and
external financing transactions, determined by residency, should be presented.
Domestic financing should be divided between that provided by the banking
system and that provided by other domestic sources. Financing transactions may
be presented by type of instrument, currency of issue, or other relevant
characteristics. Classification and definition of the surplus/
deficit-determining items according to either the GFSM 1986 or the GFSM
2001
is encouraged, and those manuals or a regional guideline may be used
as

a point of reference in
preparing metadata. Dissemination of interest payments, as part of
expenditure, is encouraged, particularly in heavily indebted countries.

 

Central government debt

 

The GDDS recommends the
compilation of annual data on central government debt, to be
disseminated within one to two quarters of the end of the reference fiscal
year. These data should reflect the comprehensive debt liabilities of the
central government and should include liabilities in the form of securities,
loans, and deposits. Government guaranteed debt is an encouraged
extension. A note in the metadata should describe any liabilities of central
government units that are excluded and/or special characteristics of debt
instruments.

 

The GDDS recommends that
central government debt data be disaggregated as relevant to a Suriname’s
circumstances. Breakdowns by maturity are strongly recommended. Where possible,
debt should be classified as short-, medium-, and long term according to remaining
(residual) maturity, but original maturity may be used if data by remaining
maturity are not available. Where feasible, a breakdown of debt by foreign and
domestic components according to residence should be provided; this will
normally be possible for debt in the form of loans. A number of other
breakdowns are acceptable, including those by currency of issue or by
instrument.

 

Classification and definition
of debt according to the guidelines of the GFSM, External Debt Statistics:

Guide for Compilers and Users (for external debt), or regional guidelines is
encouraged. The use of such guidelines, or plans to use them, should be noted
in the metadata.

 

Financial sector

 

Broad money and credit
aggregates

 

The data category corresponding
to the comprehensive framework for the financial sector—the depository
corporations survey—is broad money and credit aggregates. While
the coverage of the financial sector for money and credit aggregates will
differ in composition across countries, the ideal coverage is that recommended
in the MFSM. Narrower institutional coverage, such as only those
institutions that have liabilities in the form of narrow money (M1), should be
noted in the metadata.

 

The GDDS recommends that
indicators of broad money and credit aggregates include: money aggregates
(narrow money or M1 if used in the country, or the main broad money
aggregates—M2 and M3—that are used in the country); total domestic credit
(ideally broken down by government or nonfinancial public sector and by private
sector); and the foreign position of the depository corporations sector, which
may be presented as gross claims on liabilities to nonresidents, or as the net
foreign position.

 

The GDDS recommends that data
on broad money and credit aggregates be compiled on a monthly basis and
disseminated within one to three months of the end of the reference month.

 

Central bank aggregates

 

The GDDS recommends that data
on central bank aggregates be compiled on a monthly basis anddisseminated
within one to two months of the end ofthe reference month. The only
indicator specificallyrecommended is the monetary base. There is a
rangeof definitions of the monetary base; the most relevantcountry-specific
concept should be used. It is recommendedthat the guidelines contained
in the MFSM be used to compile central bank aggregates.

 

Interest rates

 

The GDDS recommends that
interest rates on short-term and long-term government securities be
disseminated. The most representative rates will vary across countries—a three-
or six-month treasury bill rate and a ten-year government bond rate are common
examples of representative rates. Under certain circumstances, such as
continuous fiscal surpluses, there may be no issuance of government securities.
Under other circumstances, such as conditions of high inflation, there may be
no issuance of long-term government securities. These facts should be noted on
the metadata.

 

The GDDS also recommends
dissemination of a policy variable rate such as a central bank lending
or discount rate. The role of such a rate should be described in the metadata,
or the metadata may indicate that interest rates are not used in monetary
policy formulation. The GDDS encourages the dissemination of money market or
interbank market rates and deposit
and lending rates. Where there
are benchmark deposit and lending rates, these single rates may be
disseminated. In other cases, a range of deposit and lending rates should be
disseminated.

 

The GDDS recommends that
interest rates should be available on a monthly basis. Since interest rate data
are widely available from private sources, and the dissemination by official
producers is not time-sensitive, there is no timeliness recommendation for the
dissemination of interest rates.

 

Stock market

 

The GDDS calls for the
dissemination of stock market data, in the form of a share price index,
in countries where a stock market exists. These should be disseminated on a
monthly basis. The system recognizes that share price indices are widely
available from private sources, and so the dissemination by official producers
is not time-sensitive— there is, therefore, no recommended timeliness for
dissemination of these indices. The GDDS nonetheless recommends that official
agencies re-disseminate information on share price indices.

 

External sector

 

Balance of payments aggregates

 

The data category for the
external sector that corresponds to the comprehensive statistical framework is balance
of payments aggregates
.

 

The GDDS recommends compilation
and dissemination of core indicators relating to (i) imports and exports of
goods and services; (ii) the current account balance; (iii) reserves; and (iv)
the overall balance. Classification of balance of payments components according
to the BPM5 is encouraged.

 

The GDDS recommends balance of
payments indicators be compiled on an annual basis and disseminated within six
months of the end of the reference year. The system encourages the production
and dissemination of quarterly balance of payments indicators.

 

External debt and debt-service
schedules

 

The GDDS recommends the
compilation and dissemination of quarterly data on outstanding external debt,
covering public and publicly guaranteed external debt, broken
down by maturity, with a timeliness of one to two quarters after the end of the
reference quarter. The GDDS also recommends compilation and dissemination twice
a year of the associated debt service schedule, with a timeliness
of within three to six months after the end of the reference period, showing
interest and amortization payments for the coming four quarters and two
semesters. The twice yearly periodicity means that countries would have to
disseminate the debt-service schedule every second quarter, rather than for two
consecutive quarters.

 

In addition, the GDDS
encourages the compilation and dissemination of data on private external

debt not publicly guaranteed and the associated debt service schedule.
Periodicity for these data should be annual with a timeliness of six to nine
months after the end of the reference year. It is recommended that data on
external debt and debt service schedules be compiled according to the
guidelines of External Debt Statistics: Guide for Compilers and Users,
or regional guidelines.

 

International reserves

 

International reserves serve as
a tracking category, providing a more frequent and timely indicator of external
sector developments than the balance of payments aggregates. The GDDS
recommends that data on international reserves be compiled on a monthly basis
and disseminated within one to four weeks after the end of the reference month.

The GDDS recommends
dissemination of data, expressed in U.S. dollars, on gross official reserves,
defined according to the guidelines in the BPM5. The dissemination of
data on reserve-related liabilities is encouraged. Reserve-related liabilities
usually include short-term liabilities of the monetary authorities and use of
IMF credit and loans, but country-specific measures may be disseminated.

 

Merchandise trade

 

Data on merchandise trade serve
as a tracking category, providing a more frequent and timely indicator of
developments in the current account of the balance of payments. The GDDS
recommends that data for merchandise trade be compiled on a monthly basis and
disseminated within 8 to 12 weeks after the end of the reference month.

The GDDS recommends that data
on total imports and total exports be disseminated withinthe
indicated timeliness; if dissemination of breakdownsof imports and
exports by major commodity
with a slightly longer time lag is encouraged. The
metadata should indicate whether imports and exports are recorded at c.i.f. or
f.o.b. valuations. In countries where disseminated data for total imports and
total exports exclude certain items (for example, trade with certain trading
partners or certain classes of commodities), the excluded items should be noted
in the metadata.

 

Exchange rates

 

The GDDS recommends that spot
exchange rates be available to the public on a daily basis. If these are
readily available in the media or through on-line systems, public re-dissemination
by official agencies may be limited to monthly, or preferably weekly,
end-period and period-average rates.

 

2.Quality
Dimension of the Disseminated Data

 

The quality dimension,
including development of plans for improving data quality, is closely
associated with the data dimension in the GDDS. The quality dimension of the
GDDS is especially important, given that the primary goal of the system is
improvements in data quality over time. The assessment of quality is addressed
in the GDDS in two ways. First, the metadata for comprehensive frameworks are
intended to provide detailed information on definitions, classifications,
sources of data, compilation methods, and use of international guidelines.
While the GDDS does not require a specific evaluation of data quality in the
metadata, the information called for will allow users to draw conclusions about
aspects of data quality. Second, for data categories and indicators, the
quality dimension contains the following two proxies for a specific evaluation.

 

(i) Dissemination of
documentation on methodology and data sources used in preparing statistics

 

The availability of
documentation on methodology and data sources underlying statistics is key to
users’ awareness of the strengths and weaknesses of the data. The documentation
may take several forms, including summary notes accompanying release of the
data, separate publications, or papers available on request from the producers.

 

(ii) Dissemination of
component detail, reconciliations with related data, and statistical frameworks
that support statistical cross-checks and provide assurance of reasonableness

 

To support and encourage the
assessment of data quality by users, the GDDS recommends the dissemination of
data on the components of underlying aggregate series, dissemination within a
statistical framework, and/or dissemination of comparisons and reconciliations
with related data.

 

Comparisons and reconciliations
may be of several different kinds, and some may cut across statistical
frameworks, such as exports and imports as part of the national accounts and as
part of the balance of payments. For instance, it may happen that imports and
exports of goods declared in foreign currency are valued in the national
accounts using exchange rates that are not calculated in the same way as the
exchange rates used in compiling balance of payments statistics. A comparison
of the two sets of data would make this difference explicit.

 

For the GDDS metadata,
participating members should describe the component detail, the framework, and
the comparisons and reconciliations that are disseminated. Wherever such
comparisons and reconciliations do take place, the system recommends that they
be made available to the public. The metadata should therefore mention whether
comparisons and reconciliations are made available to the public.

 

3.Integrity
Dimension

 

To fulfill the purpose of
providing the public with information, official statistics must have the
confidence of their users. In turn, confidence in the statistics ultimately
becomes a matter of confidence in the objectivity and professionalism of the
agency producing the statistics. Transparency of its practices and procedures
is a key factor in creating this confidence. Accordingly, the integrity
dimension of the GDDS includes four practices that indicate the transparency of
the producing agency’s practices and procedures. Three of them refer to
administrative practices and procedures; the fourth deals with revisions and
changes in methodology.

 

(i) Dissemination of the terms
and conditions under which official statistics are produced, including those
relating to the confidentiality of individually identifiable information

 

While the recommended practice,
embodied in the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics (UNSD,
1994), is indirect, it is nevertheless instrumental in fostering confidence in
the objectivity and professionalism with which official statistics are
prepared. The terms and conditions under which statistical agencies operate may
take various forms, including statistical laws, charters, and codes of conduct.
In many countries, these may not be in place or may be out of date.
Accordingly, a first step toward the objective would be to put such laws,
charters, and codes in place.

 

Another key aspect of the terms
and conditions under which statistical agencies operate refers to procedures
and processes relating to the confidentiality of individual responses from
persons, businesses, and organizations to official inquiries. These procedures
and processes may cover topics ranging from computer security to restrictions
on interagency disclosure.

 

(ii) Identification of internal
government access to data before release

 

In the interest of protection
from undue influence on the data before their release, the GDDS recommends
compiling a listing of persons or officials holding designated positions within
the government, but outside the agency producing the data, who have prerelease
access to the data and the dissemination of the schedule according to which
they receive access. The recommended practice is intended to provide for any
necessary prerelease access within government that the government deems
appropriate, while giving full transparency to those practices.

 

(iii) Identification of
ministerial commentary on the occasion of statistical releases

 

Ministerial commentary is not
necessarily expected to maintain the same degree of objectivity or freedom from
political judgment as would be expected of good practice for a producer of
official statistics. Therefore, the practice that is proposed in the GDDS is to
identify such commentary so that its source will be transparent to the public.

Alternatively, the statistical
agency’s material may be included, but presented separately, in a release that
contains both ministerial commentary and data. The agency’s material may
include data, explanatory text (for example, of an unusual event affecting the
data), and objective analysis; the identification as agency material may be
made in various ways, including the use of source lines in tables and of the
producer’s logos or other insignia.

 

(iv) Provision of information
about revisions and advance notice of major changes in methodology

 

Although users are interested
in revisions of official statistics from several points of view, the emphasis
in the GDDS is on practices related to revisions that enhance the transparency
of compilers’ practices. The practices called for in the system are meant to
give compilers of official statistics several ways of providing information
about revisions and thus to strike a balance between users’ concerns about
revisions and the resource cost to compilers of providing the information.

 

The advance notice of changes
in methodology should deal with major changes as defined above—for example,
change in base year, major expansions of sample size, introduction of
alternative data sources, introduction of new weighting schemes for indices,
introduction or change in the methods of seasonal adjustment, and
reclassification of transactions or industries.

 

4.Dimension
of Access by the Public

 

Dissemination of official
statistics is an essential feature of statistics as a public good. Ready
accessibility and equal access are principal requirements for the public,
including market participants. The access dimension of the GDDS is based on two
practices—dissemination of advance release calendars and simultaneous release
to all parties— that facilitate ready and equal access. In characterizing
access, “timely” is often added to “ready and equal” to form a triad of desired
attributes.

 

The lapse of time between a
reference date (or close of a reference period) and the dissemination of the
data is captured in the “timeliness” element of the data dimension, which
encompasses both the time needed for statistical processing (or compilation)
and the time needed to prepare for dissemination (for example, printing).
Accordingly, the following two practices recommended for access assume that the
timeliness objectives are in place.

 

(i) Dissemination of
advance-release calendars

 

Advance-release calendars
highlight sound management and transparency of statistical compilation and
provide data users with information needed to take a more active, organized
approach to their work.

 

The GDDS therefore recommends
the following with regard to advance-release calendars:

 

·
For comprehensive frameworks
and indicators for which annual periodicity is recommended, a specification of
dates no later than which the data will be released.

·

For other data sets, ranges
of dates, such as three to five days, during which data are expected to be
released.

·
The calendars should cover
the year ahead and be disseminated in the disseminating agency’s
highest-frequency publication, in press releases, and via electronic media, if
available.

·
Participants are encouraged
to post their advance release calendars on the IMF’s DSBB together with notes
describing events, such as a computer failure, that make it impossible to meet
the release dates previously indicated.

·
This serves to reduce the
likelihood that pressure to meet release dates will have negative effects on
other aspects of data quality.

 

(ii) Simultaneous release to
all interested parties

 

The GDDS recommends that data
be released to all interested parties at the same time. This is not intended to
refer to access by government ministries and agencies; such prerelease access
is governed by conditions set out in the description of integrity above.

For media and commercial data
vendors, simultaneous release may be interpreted as including access, under
embargo conditions, to all on equal terms. The embargo conditions that are
actually imposed may vary in strictness with the value of the data to users,
including the financial markets, and the competitiveness of the news media and
other data distributors, as well as other factors.

VIII.Metadata
and the Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board

 

Metadata, in English, for
countries participating in the GDDS are posted on the DSBB, which is maintained
by the IMF as a service to the membership. The DSBB provides wide and easy
access to detailed descriptions of country practices and facilitates tracking
of the improvements that participating countries make in each of the four
dimensions of the GDDS. Management of metadata by participating countries is an
ongoing exercise to ensure its accuracy.

 

Whenever statistical
practices change, or a plan for improvement is implemented or modified, this
information should be provided as soon as possible to the IMF’s Data
Dissemination Standards Division for posting on the DSBB. Moreover, to ensure
the credibility of the information shown on the DSBB, participating countries
should thoroughly review and, where necessary, revise the metadata at least
once a year.

 

Exchange RatesMarch 09th and until further notice

Currency Buying Selling
USD 14,018 14,290
EUR 16,628 16,959
GBP 19,396 19,782
ANG 7,699 7,852
AWG 7,784 7,939
BRL 2,438 2,485
TTD 2,063 2,103
BBD 6,907 7,044
XCD 5,190 5,293
PER 100 GYD 6,657 6,790

Gold CertificatesMarch 09th and until further notice

Coupon SRD
5 gram 7.814,97
10 gram 15.629,94
50 gram 78.149,69
100 gram 156.299,39
500 gram 781.496,94
1000 gram 1562993,88
Gold LME: USD 1.701,00 /tr.oz.

Inflation

    Average End-of-period
2012   5.0 4.3
2013   1.9 0.6
2014   3.4 3.9
2015   6.9 25.1
2016   55.5 52.4
2017   22.0  9.2 
2018   6.8# 5.4 
2019   4.4#  4.2 
2020   34.9 60.8
       
2021   Month-to-month Year-to-year
Jan   2.6 63.8
Feb   1.3 61.9
Mar   2.1 50.4
Apr   3.5 44.4
May   4.2 43.6
Jun   10.8 54.0
Jul   5.7 58.9
Aug   11.6 74.4
Sep   1.3 69.5
Oct*)   1.5 60.6

*) Preliminary figures

# 10-months inflation (Computations without data for May and June)

 

Gewogen Gemiddelde Koersen07 december - 15:00u (Bankpapier)

Geldsoort Aankoop Verkoop
USD 21,450 21,598
EUR 23,740 23,856
GBP 28,427 28,990
ANG 11,786 12,019
AWG 11,917 12,153
BRL 3,813 3,888
TTD 3,155 3,217
BBD 10,574 10,783
XCD 7,944 8,102
PER 100 GYD 10,192 10,394
CNY 3,369 3,435

GoudcertificatenDecember 07

Coupure SRD
5 gram 12.400,77
10 gram 24.801,53
50 gram 124.007,65
100 gram 248.015,30
500 gram 1.240.076,51
1000 gram 2.480.153,01
Gold LME: USD 1.778,60 /tr.oz.

Gewogen gemiddelde toegewezen OMO rente

Veiling ID Veiling Datum Rente (%)
CBTD211201-1W 2021-12-01 67,7
CBTD211124-1W 2021-11-24 60,9
CBTD211117-1W 2021-11-17 58,4
CBTD211110-1W 2021-11-10 42,3

Rente Beleningsfaciliteit

Veiling ID Veiling Datum Rente (%)
CBTD211201-1W 2021-12-01 81,2
CBTD211124-1W 2021-11-24 73,1
CBTD211117-1W 2021-11-17 70,1
CBTD211110-1W 2021-11-10 50,8
Weekbalans

Inflatie

    Average End-of-period
2012   5.0 4.3
2013   1.9 0.6
2014   3.4 3.9
2015   6.9 25.1
2016   55.5 52.4
2017   22.0  9.2 
2018   6.8# 5.4 
2019   4.4#  4.2 
2020   34.9 60.8
       
2021   Month-to-month Year-to-year
Jan   2.6 63.8
Feb   1.3 61.9
Mar   2.1 50.4
Apr   3.5 44.4
May   4.2 43.6
Jun   10.8 54.0
Jul   5.7 58.9
Aug   11.6 74.4
Sep   1.3 69.5
Oct*)   1.5 60.6

*) Preliminary figures

# 10-months inflation (Computations without data for May and June)